CDR Sample for Electrical Engineer PDF

CDR Sample for Electrical Engineer PDF : career Episode 1

  1. Introduction
  • My first project discussion is the design and construction of vehicle tracking system; the project that I did at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. This was an electrical engineering project that I did in my final year of my studies between 5 February 2013 and 10 January 2014.I handled this project as the Project Team Leader Electrical Engineer at department of electrical engineering located at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology GT Road, Wah cantt, Pakistan. I was tasked with implementing the project, demonstrating and presentation to the department.
  1. Background
  • The invention of global positioning systems and global system for mobile communication has revolutionized the way people interact with environment, making the global village. With increase in vehicle traffic and automobile robots, there is need to implement tracking systems to enable these technologies keep in touch with their owners, ensuring less incidents of theft for such property. Using the mobile networks to locate these gadgets becomes a challenge, since handoffs and geographical area covered by these cells are unpredictable and thus inaccuracy of location. However, in this project, I have designed a tracking system that integrates the global positioning (GPS) and global mobile communication (GSM) to accurately communicate the positon of the GPS module and thus the object in which it is mounted. The system uses satellite communication to identify the location and this information is send by GPS module to owner’s mobile phone via a GSM network.
  • Mainly, I did this project to implement a tracking system for moving objects (vehicles), with specific aim to study the electronic circuit design for GPS modules, to investigate the effect of satellite communication system in global positioning, to examine the mobile internetwork nodes function in transmission of the information, to evaluate the GSM circuit design, model and function, to study liquid crystal display circuits by determining their performance characteristics, to investigate the interfacing circuit models and their characteristic for communication between the GSM module, GPS module, microcontroller and LCD, to define the procedures for coding mobile application in order to capture GPS data from GSM network and display the location in a map, to evaluate the performance of the mobile VTS app, to model a simulation for the whole circuit in a suitable CAD tool and to construct the optimized system
  • In the process of executing this project, I carried out the following roles and responsibilities.
  • Analysis of vehicle tracking systems/solutions, detailing the electronic circuit components and distributed control systems for their databases
  • Study of faults in the current technologies, study of their respective diagnostic measures and troubleshoot procedures
  • Design of an integrated vehicle tracking system using GPS and GSM technologies for precise location of the vehicle
  • Prototyping and simulation of the general circuit, optimization of performance characteristics and derivation of input-output relations
  • Fabrication of components and construction of the overall system, experimentation with the prototype and derivation of performance.
  • Safety assurance and project documentation.
  1. Personal Engineering Activity
  • In preparation to begin this project, I reviewed ETSI-ES telecommunication standards for GSM, considering the network architecture, security, carrier frequencies and codecs, from where I noted considerable specifications for the system requirements. I analyzed theICD-GPS-224/IS-GPS-200 standard codes and added a list of requirements for the design, considering SMS structure. For precise guidelines, I organized and held a meeting with my supervisor who gave me detailed project design procedures and timelines for completing the different stages.
  • The project required huge data, information, knowledge of diverse technologies and skills for precise execution. I gathered these facts from datasheets for GSM modules, user manuals for GPS modules, documentations of various microcontroller tools and reference materials for various designs of display units. From these collections, I made performance evaluation by inter-relating the input – output plots of the units and fully characterizing the sub-systems. From surveys and interviews that I conducted to examine the user specifications, I computed a list of the system requirements that I considered in design.
  • In order to begin the design, I architect the functional block diagram of the circuit for logical topology analysis, made specifications of the required GSM module that constituted sub-circuits such as SIM900 chip, interfacing circuits, antenna, input port and output ports, using the GSM band for transmission and reception of signals. I selected the 89C51 microcontroller with 8KB internal memory and 128bytes of RAM for use in decoding, processing and interpreting the SMS send by the GSM and GPS modules. I designed the GPS module that shared same antenna with GSM module but worked at the satellite link band to receive the coordinates for the satellite network. I interfaced these sub-circuits using serial communication (RS232) protocol to form the complete vehicle module that would be installed in the vehicle. During this design stage, I made calculations based on the following mathematical formulations and equations for signal strength in the receiver end.
  • In the second design phase, I selected a GSM modem for communication with vehicle module, considering the decoding, encoding, modulation and demodulation capabilities, installed the SIM card to this module for access to mobile network and sourced C programming language for coding the different modules. I made algorithms for the controller code, considering inputs from GPS and GSM modules and drew the flowchart for the PC application that would display the location of the vehicle on a map, upon receiving the coordinates read from modem, practiced, coded, debugged and published the software.
  • For the second design phase, I mathematically modeled the systems, based on the following equations and calculations
  • After designing the system, I modeled simulations for the various modules of the circuit in different platforms, and specified the various components for interfacing circuits. I downloaded the executable files (binary codes) from the programs I had coded into the controller and PC, from where I made design optimization for the system performance, considering different inputs and different outputs, and interconnected the modules in the final circuit simulation model for design verification. I tabulated a bill of materials for the components required to fabricate a sample model, acquired the tools and materials that I used to construct the final product. Upon testing this physical system, I certified its operation within design specifications.
  • During the development of the system, I solved challenges such as the failure by the RS232 chip to output the logic levels for signal reception in the computer system. Investigation of this serial communication interface indicated wrong coupling mechanism for CMOS and TTL logic levels. I considered increasing the biasing voltage for the chip to leverage the two, which worked well to enable signal detection.
  • Some of the CAD tools that I used in developing this project included the Proteas simulation where I imported the 89C51 controller libraries and codes from the C language, interfaced the controller with external circuits, added models for GSM and GPS circuits and simulated their performance. I made use of CST microwave studio in analyzing the signal strength, noise and SNR for the transmission channel, from the vehicle module to the nearest GSM network base station and modem signal reception.
  • In order to achieve the targets, set in this project, I made innovations by modeling an LCD screen for displaying the outputs (GPS coordinates i.e. latitude, longitude and altitude) from the controller, which would be useful in system troubleshooting by assisting the technician locate the fault in the network. I included mobile application for the system, for easy monitoring of individual cars other than the fleet and retained modifications, for scalability of the system by using high bandwidth capacity system that can transmit more data such as fuel consumption, distance of travel and speed, by addition of new sensors and re-coding of the controller.
  • For the documentation, I made simulations for flow of information from the satellite link, through GPS module to the controller and from controller to the reception module via GSM network. This demonstrated clearly the operation of the system and served as user manual. I made datasheets from the tests carried out on the physical devices, by varying several parameters and observing the behavior of the system. I compiled a final report for the project from the weekly reports, outlining the analysis and design with detailed circuits for the construction procedures involved.
  • Working as a team ensured timely delivery of the project, where I consulted widely with my supervisor for hands on skills, innovative techniques and research methods, holding weekly meetings for progress assessment and project planning. I kept in touch with laboratory technician who assisted in experimentation, testing, data collection and analysis for characterization of the designed system.
  • For affordable solution, I made use of laboratory equipment and tools to fabricate the devices, lowering cost of production while maintaining quality of work. I aggressively bargained for least prices after conducting a market survey and making price comparisons from different manufacturers and vendors. I provided a procedure for mass production of the controller circuit, to capture the benefits of large scale in mass production cases and provided per unit cost of the VTS system, comparing them with currently existing prices.
  • I managed the project by using PERT techniques to carry out planning for the project design phases and evaluate the degree to which had solved the problem, making progress reports for each stage of development. Critical Path Analysis (CPA) was highly useful in separating tasks and making sequences for project execution, where I made network diagrams to avoid collision of activities and delays due to such occurrence. I made use of Gantt charts to determine the task orientation and objectives achievement rate.
  • Privileged to have learned and gained a wide range of skills and experience in process of developing this project, where I increased my skills on electronic communication, processor based control systems, computer programming, simulation, design optimization and sensor networks. I got the opportunity to utilize theory in creating real and practical solutions to solve problems in the society, making use of available tools and technologies.
  • By doing my own research work, using my design skills and experimentation to make original solutions ensured conformance to ethics, copyright and patent rights protection. I made sure of acknowledging all the contributors and listing all reference materials that assisted in research, analysis and design. I made safety precautions during the operation of the system, providing for user defined, picture based procedures and clearly outlined maintenance schedule for longer lifespan of the machinery.
  1. Summary
  • In conclusion, I researched on possible tracking solutions for vehicles locations, analyzed the available technologies and created a new VTS system, capitalizing on the GPS and GSM technologies,which I interfaced with a microcontroller system and made a computer application for mapping the coordinates in 3D. I made documentation with recommendations for future improvement methods to ensure technological evolution and knowledge transfer. I maintained the least cost of production for affordability and thus impacting on wide application and finally computed the benefits and limitations of using the system, which proved superior.

CDR Sample for Electrical Engineer PDF : career Episode 2

  1. Introduction
  • My second Engineering project at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology was the Design, development & Implementation of Rectenna for Mobile phone charging. I handle this project during semester six (6) of my electrical Engineering degree from September 2012 to Jan 2013.The venue for this project was Department of electrical engineering at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Wah Cantt, Pakistan. I handled this project with a group of other members but I will discuss the roles and parts that I worked on.
  1. Background
  • Energy harvesting systems are diversely evolving, with effort concentration on green and renewable systems design for environmental friendliness. However, energy conservation in the transmission and utilization sections of these systems requires re-engineering for higher efficiency. Electromagnetic waves possess high power from transmitting stations but the receiving ends receive smaller amounts of energy but over wide geographic areas. These radiations exist for different communication systems such as FM or AM radio broadcasting, Television systems, mobile communication, satellite networks, RADAR systems, WiMAX, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth etc. Such waves are captured by antennas and filtered (some energy at particular frequencies prevented from flowing to the next circuit) in order to serve certain purpose. In this project, I have developed an EMF energy harvesting system (Rectenna) that rectifies this energy instead of filtering, to gather enough power for operating the same device.
  • Objectively, I meant to develop EMF energy harvesting system that will convert high frequency electromagnetic waves in space into electrical energy and rectify the energy for use by low power electronic devices. Specifically, I aimed at researching on the best receiving power antenna, to evaluate the most suitable bandwidth of the antenna, to examine the variation of SWR in relation to efficiency of the system, to find out array factor and array elements for the most suitable antenna, to characterize the matching circuit for the system, to design a rectifier circuit for optimum DC power output, to examine the performance of the power boost circuit, to use HFSS, P-Spice and network analyzer simulation platforms in modeling, design and performance optimization of the various circuits and to investigate the effect of fabrication parameters on the system performance
  • In the project development process; I was tasked with the following roles and responsibilities.
  • Analysis of antenna technologies, design tools and modeling procedures for wideband antennas with keen focus on maximum output power.
  • Conceptualization and modeling of different sub-circuits of the RF energy harvesting system, considering useful power levels for electronics.
  • Design of the various modules and circuits of the system and overall interconnection of components to deliver the expected system performance.
  • Simulation and circuit board layout derivation for the system modules and theoretical characterization of their behavior
  • Fabrication and testing of model RF energy harvesting system, safety and operational optimization for the system.
  1. Personal Engineering Project
  • As part of preparation, I revisited the ITU-T standard codes and frequency allocation regulations for telecommunication industry, specifically focusing on TV, GSM, UMTS, CDMA and LTE network transmission frequencies and power levels. I reviewed the IEEE802.15 for Wi-Fi in local area networks and listed down Bluetooth power level specifications. I organized and held discussion with my supervisor on guidelines for the project, deadlines for different project phase completion and detailed research areas of interest in the project. I made consultations with experienced telecommunication, electronics and electrical engineers from where I gathered system requirements.
  • In order to provide sufficient knowledge, skills and expertise required throughout the project execution, I gathered a wide range of data and information from datasheets of antennas (patch, monopole and dipole arrays), collected design handbooks for the system and read widely on power electronics design from varied journals. I made a collection of scholarly articles and novel ideas concerning mobile energy and wireless power transmission systems, from where I gained intuition on technological evolution and design interests.
  • By architecting a functional block diagram as the initial design conceptualization, I was able to modularize the design into 4 main sub-systems: EMF receiving antenna, matching circuit, high frequency rectification system and voltage multiplication system. For the antenna system, I considered a design of an array constituting of broadband E-shape monopole patch antennas, considering return loss, gain, array factor, VSWR, directivity and polar plots. I made a matching circuit for the system impedance, maximizing the power transfer ratio. I plotted graphs for efficiency and performance parameter inter-relations of these two circuits.
  • During this first design stage, I used the following mathematical formulation to calculate the values of components and antenna dimensions.
  • For the rectifier system, I traded off between rectifier with voltage doubler and power cast 2110 integrated circuit, and by plotting performance curves, selected the powercast2110 due to high ranges of HF operation, high output voltage, higher stability and less cost. I designed the time setting and storage capacitor size, considering cycle of operation. I designed the voltage boosting circuit, consisting of TPS6122X series of DC-DC power converters with higher temperature range and adjustable output voltage switch. During this second design consideration, I made use of the following mathematical calculations and modeling equations.

                   = cycle time, output voltage, output current and capacitor size respectively.

             Where Pi, Po= power input and power output respectively, e= efficiency of the system.

  • After the design, I modeled simulations in P-Spice for the various circuits and carried out theoretical analysis of the system, standardized the models, derived performance curves and optimized the designs for each module, which I interconnected to form the larger circuit and over-ally parameterized the system. I drafted the circuit board layouts, from where I minimized the area and efficiently used the space. From these simulations and 3D PCB diagrams, I derived a bill of materials and tools, acquired them, fabricated and tested a prototype product, whose performance met the design specifications as expected.
  • During the execution, I faced several challenges including low EMF energy conversion rate by the antenna system. Upon investigation, I realized the narrow bandwidth and high directivity and the contributing factors and provided a broad array of elements, which I modeled for omni-directinality and with high bandwidth to capture a large portion of the EMF, a solution that proved best in performance and gave expected results. A small storage output capacitor was contributing to short operation cycles while a large one would be slow in charging and discharging cycles. I interconnected a compromise of series and parallel capacitor connections, to derive higher values with optimized operational cycles.
  • In order to fasten the product prototyping, I used CAD tools. HFSS for modeling the finite element structure of the antenna, deriving its performance parameters in 3D full wave analysis, from where I made curves for VSWR-efficiency, polar plots for electromagnetic radiation patterns and dimensions of the various array elements. I used P-Spice to model the rectification and voltage multiplication circuits for the power processing and made final parameter relational behavior, using the network analyzer platform for measurements and testing.
  • In order to deliver the expectations defined in the research areas of interests, I made innovations on the technology, utilizing the voltage doublers to boost the signal with parallel-series capacitor circuits for optimum operational cycles. I used array technique to alter the directionality and bandwidth of the antenna, which led to derivation of maximum EMF energy from the various frequencies of transmission and used simulations in the design procedure to avoid lengthy calculations.
  • For the documentation, I made a final project report, outlining the justification of the project to solve the stated problem, enumerated the detailed literature review for the various circuits, included the design procedure for the antenna, matching, rectifier and booster systems, incorporating the overall system circuit design and discussed the data from the simulations in comparison to performance testing of the prototype project. I created animations to illustrate the power harvesting mechanism and utilization in same electronic device.
  • In order to ensure diversification of ideas, I leveraged on teamwork, where I sought experimentation assistance from the laboratory technologists for testing of the prototype performance and data analysis, specifically capturing the operational advantages of the system. I consulted with experienced engineers in their field of specialization to derive best solutions for the particularly varied module designs. Working closely with colleagues assisted in exchange of ideas and criticism that helped shape the final product.
  • Economically, I made sound decisions for energy efficiency, conservation and management within the module, by utilizing low power technologies for switching and processing. I considered using integrated circuits over discrete components, since these devices are comparatively cheaper due to economies of large scale, and perform better than discrete components in different perspectives. I made a market survey for the various components to establish least cost for the project.
  • In order to efficiently manage this project with minimum possible wastage, I utilized the PERT technique to plan and evaluate the necessary project achievements in developing the different stages of the project. I made use of network diagrams to plot the paths for sequential execution of different tasks, avoiding unnecessary collisions and or delays in the development lifecycle. I scheduled all the activities within the given timeframe and ensured adherence to deadlines.
  • Continuous training and knowledge acquisition that I experienced during this project included improvements in programming skill set, where I utilized new HF simulation codes to derive models for circuit operation. I added in to my list of design procedures, new techniques of systems selection and specification, while widening my technical abilities in statistical measurements, analysis, regression modeling and inferencing. I gained wide experience on the methods used to transform theoretical knowledge into practical solutions.
  • In the construction process, I provided the required personal protective equipment for safety and used them appropriately when fabricating the system. I installed the antivirus software in my PC to ensure data and information security for the models, where I scanned all external sources of files and activated the firewall while accessing material from the web. Earthing all the metallic parts and electrical enclosures of the system, ensured safety from leakage current and thus eliminating accidents resulting from shock.
  1. Summary
  • In summary, I analyzed, modeled, designed and experimented with HF energy harvesting system with capacity to capture wide range of electromagnetic waves from space, and transform them into electrical energy for utilization in low power electronics. I included several innovative techniques in the project to make it suitable for the particular problem solution and derived characteristic curves for the system performance to assist in identification of fault and diagnosis measures, while guiding new user and designers who would like to incorporate the technology in complex systems. I documented the project work undertaken to transfer knowledge to the new researchers, making recommendations on possible alterations for better perfomance.

CDR Sample for Electrical Engineer PDF : career Episode 3

  1. Introduction
  • My last Engineering project that I did at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Wah Cantt, Pakistan. The project was the Design and development of solar based efficient power system for domestic applications. The time period for this project was 5th semester during my studies towards Bachelor of electrical engineering at Department of Electrical. I worked on this project between February 2012 and June 2012 at COMSATS, electrical department located at Wah Cantt, Pakistan. The project was group work but I did my part as discussed below and presented it to the department members
  1. Background
  • Conversion of energy from one form to another form is a critical design consideration that determines the cost of production of electrical energy. Over the last few decades, concentration has shifted focus to renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and biomass. Of these three, solar systems dominate the advantages and will most likely dominate the climate change campaign. However, these systems have one great limitation of low energy conversion efficiency with two different methods for the process, i.e. generators (solar energy used to heat water into steam, which turns the turbine and thus supplying mechanical power to generator) and photovoltaic process (where solar cells are used to convert the solar radiation directly to electrical energy). In this project, have analyzed the technologies in these power systems and derived efficient methods for conversion, transmission, storage and utilization of solar power.
  • Purposely, I did this project to model solar power systems technology for efficient energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization, to study the solar cell conversion efficiency parameters and their respective determining factors, to comparatively investigate the monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar cell technologies, to examine efficient energy storage to cater for supply when there is no solar radiation, to find out the suitable servomechanism for tracking solar radiation, to evaluate the various DC and AC load types detailing their respective energy consumption dynamics, to establish cost analysis for operating solar power systems, to investigate the accuracy of solar tracking by in cooperating temperature and light sensors, to study the processes of solar installation, maintenance scheduling and repair of frequent faults and to propose energy management strategies and conservancy measures, which can be deployed to enhance system performance.
  • As the research electrical engineer in charge of this project, I was tasked with following roles and responsibilities.
  • Detailed literature review of the available solar power systems, identifying the fault diagnosis mechanisms for the frequent problems
  • Modeling of system sub-circuits, including the solar cells, power lines, storage, converters, loads and maximum power point trackers
  • Design of efficient solar technologies for different capacities, ratings, materials design and fabrication effects/defects
  • Systems performance optimization for solar power system dynamics, developing strategies for energy management and conservation.
  • Deriving bills of quantities for different technologies and carrying out cost comparison for solar power models
  • Safety regulation and project documentation.
  1. Personal Engineering Activity
  • As part of preparations to begin this project, I reviewed the IEEE 1547/2030 standard codes for solar grids and listed down specific system requirements for interoperability and compatibility with other systems. I also revisited the ISO/TC 180 solar energy specifications and added more considerations to the circuit models. ET 28/6496 IS standards for uninterruptible power supplies gave detailed quantification methods for the various techniques used in this project. I organized and held a consultative meeting where I got the guidelines and time plan for the project phases from my project supervisor.
  • In order to avail the required techniques, skills and design procedures required in this project, I gathered a widely varied data and information from datasheets of different designers and manufacturers of these technologies, used scholarly articles and published journals to derive technological advancements, made in these technologies over time. By survey and interviews and compiled detailed customer focused system requirements that I incorporated in this analysis.
  • For the first design phase, I modeled solar, wind, hydro and bio-mass energy systems for performance comparison in terms of power outputs, availability, power factor and per unit cost of production, from where I tabulated the resultant findings. I considered design measurement parameters for the power production equipment, determining their efficiency, ease of use and maintenance requirements for equal capacities of power production.
  • During this design, I made calculations based on the following mathematical equations and formulations.

              Where Ws= watt-hour rating of the solar system, Wl= connected load in watts and Tc= operating time                     (hours).

         Where Pa= actual power output of solar system, Pp= peak power produced and f0= operating factor.

  • In the second design phase, I modeled each component of the system on its own, considering a battery bank with a deep cycle and a high rating (Ah), designed charge controller using low power logic families, made a solar panel on a polycrystalline structure for high efficiency and a solar tracking system, for turning the solar panel in the direction of solar radiation, using a servo motor controlled by microcontroller with a solar sensor. I modeled the DC loads for light tubes, energy saving bulb, ceiling fan, air coolers and exhaust fans, optimizing the energy consumption for each. For the second design phase, I calculated the component values for each circuit, by mathematical modeling as follows.

                                         Q= battery capacity in Ah, I= current in A and t= operation time in hours

                                     Bw= battery rating in watt-hour, Vn= nominal voltage and Ah=ampere hour rating.

  • After the modeling and analysis of the solar power system, I made simulations using Power world computer simulation model with solar power plant generators, high rating for battery storage capacities and DC loads. From these models, I derived the voltage-current characteristics of the components, their efficiency, availability for different weather conditions and their effect on the overall system performance and cost of transmission from the solar plants to consumer loads. From these measurements, I made the plots and graphically determined the optimization strategies.
  • Some of the challenges that I faced during the process of project development included tracking the direction of the solar intensity, which I solved by utilizing a servo motor, run by a relay, depending on the calibrated sensor values and controller algorithm decisions. I solved the fan out and fan in loadings for the devices connecting the control mechanism with the power supply network, by using an opto-coupler to isolate the signals and thus prevent over loading of the components. Variation of power and imbalances between input power available from solar panel and from battery was also a major challenge that I solved by coding the duty cycle on a power levels control loop
  • In order to ensure rapid prototyping, I made great use of CAD tools. Power world simulation platform assisted greatly in modeling the system by including the solar generators and power lines in schematics, which I used to study the load flow in the solar power system. I made use of GRIDLAB simulation platform to model the sizing design optimization, dynamic behavior modeling, mitigation and power quality analysis, co-ordination and protection and fault analysis for the interconnected system.
  • Making use of innovative procedures and techniques was necessary in realizing the goals set forth in this project. I strategically modeled a timing automation system to switch the power off when the battery level went below critical charge, to avoid excessive discharge and thus lengthening the lifespan of the battery. I made provision to control the solar panel isolation by including humidity and temperature sensors in a control loop for operations of the designed system.
  • For the documentation, I made datasheets for the system operation, from the simulations that I carried out, plotting the input-output characteristics of the components used in the design and modeling. Deriving user manuals on picture based procedures served to assist users in designing particulate and suitable systems for specified applications. I made a final project report, outlining all the component design tradeoffs and system characteristics, justifying the necessity of interconversion efficiency of the energies from solar to electrical to chemical to electrical and final forms depending on the types of loads.
  • In order to achieve the specific objectives, I worked collectively with other team members where I consulted widely with experienced engineers, on solar technologies and components for solar power processing, that I modeled and simulated on a complete power system circuit. I kept updating the project supervisor on progress made in various stages of development, for timely delivery and planning. For continued supply of ideas and techniques, I maintained close relations with colleagues and academic advisor, who assisted me in realizing the expected solutions.
  • In order to ensure affordability of the designed system, I conducted market surveys to determine the minimum prices for all components in the system, without compromising on quality and minimized the energy consumption of auxiliary equipment and electronic gadgets by using low power logic families. I tabulated a bill of quantities for all the materials and equipment for ease of procurement and made listings for several manufacturers’ total prices.
  • I applied several project management techniques and skills, including the use of Gantt charts to plan the various activities and tasks of the project, to ensure smooth and sequential running of the project. I modularized the design by breaking down the larger tasks into simpler and smaller tasks that I scheduled in a time frame, and maintained program execution rate to deliver the right task at the right time. Net Present Value (NPV), Accounting Rate of Return (ARR) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) evaluation techniques enabled me to validate the project.
  • Privileged to have gained wide experience in transforming theoretical knowledge into practical experience and widening my design skill set, I added into my technical record, new ways of finding solutions to problems in society. To keep at par with technical knowledge requirements of this project, I took online tutorials on programming languages and simulation platforms, which assisted me in making precise model designs and to completely specify the parameters of the circuits.
  • For safety assurance, I made provisions for earthing all the metallic structures and electrical enclosures, protecting the operators and users of the solar systems from electrical shock and leakage of currents, provided precautions for handling the delicate panels to avoid breakage of glass covers and made clear procedures for designing and modeling the various modules. I protected the data and information in my PC from corruption by malicious programs and deterring viruses from the web.